Position of Sun in 12 Houses. Toggle navigation. Category Archive Health. By Mazilkree. Magal administrator. Recent Posts. No copyright information has been saved yet. The missionaries had considered it a legitimate duty to educate the natives.
The missionaries started to promote vernacular literature in all aspects. Phillips, E. Hallam, J. Stubbins, J. Buckley, J. Pike, and their wives and converted Odias. Then, vernacular education, English education, special education for women were introduced and promoted by them. They established the first printing press at Cuttack in Their main objective was to convert the natives into Christianity.
Its translation and publication into Indian languages were also essential. Distributing Bibles and religious tracts among the native converts made them translate the religious stories to the native vernaculars. Various activities of the missionaries were explored by Amos Sutton. His book on Orissa and its Evangelization clearly demonstrates their interest in learning the Odia language and thinking about its progress.
Sutton , categorically said that the missionaries of Odisha should furnish every school with books in the Odia language. He recorded an important role of translation in order to serve the Government and educate the natives through their vernacular medium.
Thus did Dr. For the purpose of printing and publishing their religious texts they established a printing press at Cuttack in Sutton, , ; Patra, , which was named as Odisha Mission Press, Cuttack. The missionary activities were vividly reported in the newspaper named as Friend of India which was edited and published by Carey and his friends Marshman and Ward.
It is printed in the Oriya character and for neatness of execution is not exceeded, doing any similar brochure which has issued from the Metropolitan Press in Calcutta. It does no little credit to those to whose feelings of public spirit and Christian benevolence the district is now indebted for an efficient press. The establishment of a press in any province is an important era in its history. It is delightful therefore to contemplate the rapid increase of the means of intellectual and religious improvement through means of this mighty engine in the various and even remote provinces of this empire.
We know witness the establishment of process at the opposite extremities of the Bengal presidency through the spirited exertions of missionaries, but for whose labour those provinces might long have remained destitute of them.
Looking down to the southern most of the provinces, we find a press setup in country of Orissa. The extent to which the language is used has only been discovered of late. We find that it is spoken and written through and extent country three hundred miles in breadth from the sea to one hundred miles in breadth from the sea, to one hundred miles in length west Sambalpore, and more than two hundred miles in breadth from Midnapore, where it melts into Bengalee Bengali , to Ganjam, where it meets the Teloogoo Telugu.
It was indispensable therefore to the competences of missionary operation to that kingdom that means should be provided on the spot for multiplying books in a language so extensively used. We know that a strong disposition exists in the highest quarter to provincialize the public service in Orissa. It is the wish of Government that those who are appointed to this province should apply themselves earnestly to the acquisition of the vernacular tongue, and should more in a circle of promotion within the province itself. In this arrangement there is much wisdom.
But to render it efficient, it is necessary to follow it up by the translation of all orders, which the people are required to understand and act on, into their own language, and by a liberal use of the press which has now been established in the province….. Two presses have even since been kept in operation, and a large number of useful works published, under the management of Mr W.
Brooks, Sutton, They have not neglected the preparation of a Christian literature, the translation of the bible, the printing of tracts, or the education of youth; but public preaching in all parts of the country has always been considered by them a first and chief duty. This description of Sutton states the pioneering efforts of missionaries in setting up a printing press, translating sacred texts and government treaties, school books, vernacularization of texts encouraged and promoted by the missionaries.
Newspapers, journals, and periodicals in Odia were published by them. They introduced new literary genres: prose, fiction, translation, travelogue, grammar, and dictionary in vernacular languages. Their main goal was to spread Christianity in Odisha by establishing the printing press, running literary periodicals and journals which supported them in preaching Christianity on the soil of Odisha.
Their mission of proselytizing not only flourished but also helped in canonization of the Odia literature. The grammar, dictionary, journals and periodicals were introduced during the same period for evangelical and pedagogical purposes. The modern era of Odia translation which was introduced by the missionaries sped up with their religious evangelic activities and tried to spread the western knowledge and reality of human life through the Christian literatures. The literary contributions of the missionaries represent the variety of literary compositions in Odia which were written, transcreated, and translated by them.
The religious texts like the Bible, religious tracts, and religious pamphlets were translated by the missionaries and the converted Odias. The examples of Odia Bible translations and religious tracts shed light on the translation history of Odia and its important aspects. The first Odia translation of the New Testament was published in Cox, , It was translated from the Greek sources with the help of William Carey and his translation team of Serampore.
The same version of the Bible was revised and improved by Sutton in and was published from Orissa Mission Press, Cuttack. There were several versions of the Bible translation in Odia. A missionary and an activist from Odisha, Rev. George Smith, a biographer of William Carey, mentioned that the Odia translation of New Testament was printed in and Old Testament in quoted in Arangaden, , There were several versions of the Odia Bible translation and they were revised by several translators from time to time.
The translators were mostly foreign missionaries and converted Odia missionaries. He tried to make all possible corrections and John Buckley completed it in Dhall, , This version received an excellent acceptance among the native converters of Odisha Patra, , In the year , Buckley with the help of a certain native preacher, Jagu Raul published the revised version of the Old Testament.
Further, the New Testament was translated in by J. After many years i. Pike began the translation of New Testament in his own style. He was assisted by Rev.
Benjamin Pradhan. In the year , the translation of the Bible work resumed under the joint responsibility of the Orissa Christian Society, British and foreign Bible Society and different missionary societies operating in Odisha. Benjamin Pradhan, Rev. Fellows, and Rev. Pradhan was chief member of the revision committee Patra, , ; Dhall, , It was expected that this revised version of the Bible would be more readable for the native preachers.
There were many religious and moral tracts translated by the missionaries that are claimed as their significant contributions which inspired the Odias to improve their literary genres. Odia Translation of Tracts and Religious Literature Translation of religious tracts into Odia was another contribution of the missionaries. The Bible Translation Society and Tract Society of America provided funds for printing the religious gospels and tracts in native languages. The first religious tract in Odia was written by Rev. William Bampton and Rev. While coming to Odisha in , they received religious books and religious tracts from Serampore Mission Press, Calcutta for spreading Christianity among the natives.
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In , tracts were distributed by the missionaries to the native people of Odisha Samantaray, , It was one of the primary duties of the missionary groups to translate and prepare the religious tracts in Odia. Most of the tracts published in Odia were translations Dhall, , Amos Sutton also composed thirty tracts; several of them in poetry to meet the requirements of the people. In the year , about 28, copies of tracts were distributed amongst the native preachers of Odisha. For the purpose of translating and publishing tracts, the American Tract society had financed dollars to Odisha missionaries.
In , the missionaries of Odisha received ninety reams of paper and one thousand dollars for printing of tracts in Odia. Name of the Tract No. Jewell Mine o Salvation 10, 3. Sermon of the Mount 5, 4. Miracle of the Christ 5, 5. Baibelara sisu 1, Selection of the Tract 2, Jagannath Tested 10, Christian Jeevani 10, True Christian 3, The publication of copies confirms the popularity of the tracts and various important social and religious themes were narrated in those tracts.
Duibee, Two Christian duibeenkara Women carita Mrityu 5. Brooks and were listed by Mishra, , These tracts are crucial for studying the development of styles of modern Odia prose and poetry. By distributing these tracts, the missionaries tried do away with the Hindu religious orthodoxy and superstitions of the common Odia people. Apart from these tracts, missionaries also translated a few literary religious texts of modern English to Odia for the purpose of pedagogy. Translation and Writing School Books in Odia The textbook or school book preparation was one of the greatest contributions of the missionaries.
The missionaries ran a school in Balasore. Only the Bible was taught there. In the year the English Charity School was established by the missionaries in Cuttack Sahu, , For the educational purposes, they translated a few English and Bengali books into Odia.
The textbook writing initiated by the colonial officers with the help of the missionaries like Rev. Amos Sutton, Rev. Phillips, W. For writing textbooks in Odia, the missionaries adopted translation as a method to prepare the school books in a short duration. The British Government also encouraged and patronized the missionaries and their textbook writing activities were appreciated.